Elderly degeneration of Macula lutea (AMD) and its treatment


It is a medical eye condition , which usually affects older people and is characterized by loss of visual acuity in the central part of the visual field due to damage of retinal tissue or macula tissue ( macula lutea ) . It occurs in two forms , as a ' dry ' and ' wet ' form .


It represents one of the major causes of loss in visual acuity ( with cataract ) in the elderly population , over 50 years old. In advanced disease states , reading is difficult and recognizing facial features of people in the environment , which significantly distorts quality of their lives. Periphery vision remains mostly intact, so the movement and other daily activities are possible.


Macula lutea (macula) is the area of the retina , which is crucial for the quality of central vision . In the case of the development of ' dry ' (non exudative form) AMD leads to the accumulation of cellular deposits , that accumulate under the retina and the lifting off of the posterior pole of the eye. A more severe form of AMD , " wet " ( exudative ) is characterized by ingrowth of blood vessels under the retina (or macula lutea) , also leading to its raising . In both cases, a loss in visual acuity , to a lesser or greater extent .


Early changes in the initial AMD as a rule do not affect vision to a significant extent . This fact often does not indicate that the patient has a serious eye problem . With periodic review of ophthalmologists , the disease would have been recognized at the very beginning and its progression could be avoided or slowed down.


Symptoms and signs of AMD:


-cellular deposits

- Displacement of pigment of macula lutea

- Exudative changes, ocular bleeding, the occurrence of hard exudates with crystals, intra-retinal accumulation of fluid

- Decrease of visual acuity

- Blurred vision

- The central visual field defects

- diagnosed by CVF, MILMEDIC possesses such a device

- Metamorphopsions

- sensation the patient to make the lines look distorted or winding

- Disturbance of perception of colors

- Slower recovery of visual function after exposure to bright light

- Decrease or loss of contrast sensitivity


Multiple causes of AMD:


- Aging , studies show that 10 % of the population between 66 and 74 years of age, showing signs of the disease in different stages

- Family history, nearly half of patients who have close relatives with the disease which is manifested in the course of time will also get yourself

- Increased exposure to ultra - violet radiation ( sunlight )

- The existence of the gene for the complement system proteins factor H ( CFH ) , factor B ( CFB) and factor 3 ( C3 ) , is significantly associated with the development of disease

- Stargardt 's disease

- cellular deposits of macula lutea

- High blood pressure ( hyper tension )

- Elevated cholesterol and triglycerides

- A high intake of fat and unhealthy diet

- Oxidative stress, accumulation of specific forms oligomers of melanin , the pigment retinal epithelium

- Affiliation to white race

- Cigarette smoking