Diabetic retinopathy is a chronic micro-vascular complications of diabetes (diabetes). It can occur in all types of diabetes, but it should be noted that the proliferative form of diabetic retinopathy occurs more frequently in type 1 diabetes, whereas diabetic maculopathy (disease of macula lutea) more common in type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy include: genetic predisposition, duration of diabetes, poor metabolic control, hypertension, nephropathy and smoking
Diabetic retinopathy can be classified into 3 stages:
First non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
2nd pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
3rd proliferative diabetic retinopathy
In order to prevent the occurrence and progression of diabetic retinopathy ,the most important isgood metabolic control of diabetes, which is reflected in a satisfactory glycemic control ( HbA1c <7%) and good values of cholesterol and triglycerides, and then the treatment of hypertension and smoking cessation.
It is very important that patients with diabetes regularly occur in ophthalmic examinations for the purpose of early detection of diabetic retinopathy and timely application of laserphotocoagulation treatment. This treatment can slow or stop the progression of the disease, but it can not achieve restoring of lost visual acuity.
If you do not respect these rules diabetic retinopathy leads to irreversible loss of vision due to severe complications, traction of retina and retinal neo-vascular glaucoma. If the disease goes into proliferative form it is necessary to perform surgical intervention MIVS-23G.